Iranian Journal of Radiology

Published by: Kowsar

Use of Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound to Assess Leptomeningeal Collateral Flow in Patients with Severe Occlusive Internal Carotid and Middle Cerebral Artery Disorders: Correlation with Cerebral Angiography

Jie Pan 1 , Jiajia Zhou 2 , Ping Liu 2 , Yali Gu 2 and Benyan Luo 2 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Neurology, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
2 Department of Neurology, College of Medical, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Radiology: April 2017, 14 (2); e36738
  • Published Online: November 12, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: February 2, 2016
  • Revised: August 31, 2016
  • Accepted: September 25, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/iranjradiol.36738

To Cite: Pan J, Zhou J, Liu P, Gu Y, Luo B. Use of Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound to Assess Leptomeningeal Collateral Flow in Patients with Severe Occlusive Internal Carotid and Middle Cerebral Artery Disorders: Correlation with Cerebral Angiography, Iran J Radiol. 2017 ; 14(2):e36738. doi: 10.5812/iranjradiol.36738.

Copyright © 2016, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Iranian Society of Radiology. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Bryan DS, Carson J, Hall H, He Q, Qato K, Lozanski L, et al. Natural history of carotid artery occlusion. Ann Vasc Surg. 2013; 27(2): 186-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Gonzalez A, Gil-Peralta A, Mayol A, Gonzalez-Marcos JR, Moniche F, Aguilar M, et al. Internal carotid artery stenting in patients with near occlusion: 30-day and long-term outcome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011; 32(2): 252-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. del Zoppo GJ, Higashida RT, Furlan AJ, Pessin MS, Rowley HA, Gent M. PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke. PROACT Investigators. Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism. Stroke. 1998; 29(1): 4-11[PubMed]
  • 4. Qureshi AI, Siddiqui AM, Kim SH, Hanel RA, Xavier AR, Kirmani JF, et al. Reocclusion of recanalized arteries during intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004; 25(2): 322-8[PubMed]
  • 5. Roberts HC, Dillon WP, Furlan AJ, Wechsler LR, Rowley HA, Fischbein NJ, et al. Computed tomographic findings in patients undergoing intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery occlusion: results from the PROACT II trial. Stroke. 2002; 33(6): 1557-65[PubMed]
  • 6. Schneider PA, Rossman ME, Bernstein EF, Torem S, Ringelstein EB, Otis SM. Effect of internal carotid artery occlusion on intracranial hemodynamics. Transcranial Doppler evaluation and clinical correlation. Stroke. 1988; 19(5): 589-93[PubMed]
  • 7. Grolimund P, Seiler RW, Aaslid R, Huber P, Zurbruegg H. Evaluation of cerebrovascular disease by combined extracranial and transcranial Doppler sonography. Experience in 1,039 patients. Stroke. 1987; 18(6): 1018-24[PubMed]
  • 8. Kaps M, Damian MS, Teschendorf U, Dorndorf W. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings in middle cerebral artery occlusion. Stroke. 1990; 21(4): 532-7[PubMed]
  • 9. Reinhard M, Muller T, Guschlbauer B, Timmer J, Hetzel A. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation and collateral flow patterns in patients with severe carotid stenosis or occlusion. Ultrasound Med Biol. 2003; 29(8): 1105-13[PubMed]
  • 10. Reinhard M, Muller T, Roth M, Guschlbauer B, Timmer J, Hetzel A. Bilateral severe carotid artery stenosis or occlusion - cerebral autoregulation dynamics and collateral flow patterns. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2003; 145(12): 1053-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Muller M, Schimrigk K. Vasomotor reactivity and pattern of collateral blood flow in severe occlusive carotid artery disease. Stroke. 1996; 27(2): 296-9[PubMed]
  • 12. Kim Y, Sin DS, Park HY, Park MS, Cho KH. Relationship between flow diversion on transcranial Doppler sonography and leptomeningeal collateral circulation in patients with middle cerebral artery occlusive disorder. J Neuroimaging. 2009; 19(1): 23-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Zanette EM, Roberti C, Mancini G, Pozzilli C, Bragoni M, Toni D. Spontaneous middle cerebral artery reperfusion in ischemic stroke. A follow-up study with transcranial Doppler. Stroke. 1995; 26(3): 430-3[PubMed]
  • 14. Hennerici M, Rautenberg W, Schwartz A. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound for the assessment of intracranial arterial flow velocity--Part 2. Evaluation of intracranial arterial disease. Surg Neurol. 1987; 27(6): 523-32[PubMed]
  • 15. Kappelle LJ, Eliasziw M, Fox AJ, Sharpe BL, Barnett HJ. Importance of intracranial atherosclerotic disease in patients with symptomatic stenosis of the internal carotid artery. The North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trail. Stroke. 1999; 30(2): 282-6[PubMed]
  • 16. Schumacher HC, Khaw AV, Meyers PM, Gupta R, Higashida RT. Intracranial angioplasty and stent placement for cerebral atherosclerosis. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004; 15(1 Pt 2)-32[PubMed]
  • 17. McVerry F, Liebeskind DS, Muir KW. Systematic review of methods for assessing leptomeningeal collateral flow. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012; 33(3): 576-82[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Miteff F, Levi CR, Bateman GA, Spratt N, McElduff P, Parsons MW. The independent predictive utility of computed tomography angiographic collateral status in acute ischaemic stroke. Brain. 2009; 132: 2231-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Bang OY, Saver JL, Buck BH, Alger JR, Starkman S, Ovbiagele B, et al. Impact of collateral flow on tissue fate in acute ischaemic stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008; 79(6): 625-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Calleja AI, Cortijo E, Garcia-Bermejo P, Gomez RD, Perez-Fernandez S, Del Monte JM, et al. Collateral circulation on perfusion-computed tomography-source images predicts the response to stroke intravenous thrombolysis. Eur J Neurol. 2013; 20(5): 795-802[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Lazzaro MA, Chen M, Christoforidis GA, Mohammad Y. The impact of diabetes on the extent of pial collaterals in acute ischemic stroke patients. J Neurointerv Surg. 2011; 3(3): 242-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Akamatsu Y, Nishijima Y, Lee CC, Yang SY, Shi L, An L, et al. Impaired leptomeningeal collateral flow contributes to the poor outcome following experimental stroke in the Type 2 diabetic mice. J Neurosci. 2015; 35(9): 3851-64[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments