Iranian Journal of Radiology

Published by: Kowsar

Magnetic Resonance Angiography in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation and Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Comparison of Time-Resolved Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Three Dimensional Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography

Yu-Ching Cheng 1 , Hung-Chieh Chen 1 , Chen-Hao Wu 1 , 2 , * , Yi-Ying Wu 1 , Ming-His Sun 3 , Wen-Hsien Chen 1 , Jyh-Wen Chai 1 and Clayton Chi-Chang Chen 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Radiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
2 Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan
3 Department of Neurosurgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Radiology: April 01, 2016, 13 (2); e19814
  • Published Online: March 28, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: April 29, 2014
  • Revised: September 28, 2014
  • Accepted: October 18, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/iranjradiol.19814

To Cite: Cheng Y, Chen H, Wu C, Wu Y, Sun M, et al. Magnetic Resonance Angiography in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation and Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Comparison of Time-Resolved Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Three Dimensional Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography, Iran J Radiol. 2016 ; 13(2):e19814. doi: 10.5812/iranjradiol.19814.

Copyright © 2016, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Iranian Society of Radiology. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Wheaton AJ, Miyazaki M. Non-contrast enhanced MR angiography: physical principles. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2012; 36(2): 286-304[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Lim RP, Shapiro M, Wang EY, Law M, Babb JS, Rueff LE, et al. 3D time-resolved MR angiography (MRA) of the carotid arteries with time-resolved imaging with stochastic trajectories: comparison with 3D contrast-enhanced Bolus-Chase MRA and 3D time-of-flight MRA. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008; 29(10): 1847-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Gupta V, Chugh M, Walia BS, Vaishya S, Jha AN. Use of CT angiography for anatomic localization of arteriovenous malformation Nidal components. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2008; 29(10): 1837-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Willems PW, Taeshineetanakul P, Schenk B, Brouwer PA, Terbrugge KG, Krings T. The use of 4D-CTA in the diagnostic work-up of brain arteriovenous malformations. Neuroradiology. 2012; 54(2): 123-31[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Nussel F, Wegmuller H, Huber P. Comparison of magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and conventional angiography in cerebral arteriovenous malformation. Neuroradiology. 1991; 33(1): 56-61[PubMed]
  • 6. Blackham KA, Passalacqua MA, Sandhu GS, Gilkeson RC, Griswold MA, Gulani V. Applications of time-resolved MR angiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2011; 196(5)-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Bink A, Berkefeld J, Wagner M, You SJ, Ackermann H, Lorenz MW, et al. Detection and grading of dAVF: prospects and limitations of 3T MRI. Eur Radiol. 2012; 22(2): 429-38[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Pelz DM. Complication rates of DSA and conventional film cerebral angiography. Radiology. 1992; 185(3): 908[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Thiex R, Norbash AM, Frerichs KU. The safety of dedicated-team catheter-based diagnostic cerebral angiography in the era of advanced noninvasive imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010; 31(2): 230-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Bash S, Villablanca JP, Jahan R, Duckwiler G, Tillis M, Kidwell C, et al. Intracranial vascular stenosis and occlusive disease: evaluation with CT angiography, MR angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005; 26(5): 1012-21[PubMed]
  • 11. Manual on Contrast Media. 2012;
  • 12. Unlu E, Temizoz O, Albayram S, Genchellac H, Hamamcioglu MK, Kurt I, et al. Contrast-enhanced MR 3D angiography in the assessment of brain AVMs. Eur J Radiol. 2006; 60(3): 367-78[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Grist TM, Mistretta CA, Strother CM, Turski PA. Time-resolved angiography: Past, present, and future. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2012; 36(6): 1273-86[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Carroll TJ. The emergence of time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR imaging for intracranial angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002; 23(3): 346-8[PubMed]
  • 15. Parmar H, Ivancevic MK, Dudek N, Gandhi D, Mukherji SK. Dynamic MRA with four-dimensional time-resolved angiography using keyhole at 3 tesla in head and neck vascular lesions. J Neuroophthalmol. 2009; 29(2): 119-27[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Hadizadeh DR, Gieseke J, Beck G, Geerts L, Kukuk GM, Bostrom A, et al. View-sharing in keyhole imaging: Partially compressed central k-space acquisition in time-resolved MRA at 3.0 T. Eur J Radiol. 2011; 80(2): 400-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Krings T, Hans F. New developments in MRA: time-resolved MRA. Neuroradiology. 2004; 46 Suppl 2-22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Riffel P, Haneder S, Attenberger UI, Brade J, Schoenberg SO, Michaely HJ. Combined large field-of-view MRA and time-resolved MRA of the lower extremities: impact of acquisition order on image quality. Eur J Radiol. 2012; 81(10): 2754-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Willinek WA, Hadizadeh DR, von Falkenhausen M, Urbach H, Hoogeveen R, Schild HH, et al. 4D time-resolved MR angiography with keyhole (4D-TRAK): more than 60 times accelerated MRA using a combination of CENTRA, keyhole, and SENSE at 3.0T. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008; 27(6): 1455-60[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Song T, Laine AF, Chen Q, Rusinek H, Bokacheva L, Lim RP, et al. Optimal k-space sampling for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with an application to MR renography. Magn Reson Med. 2009; 61(5): 1242-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Gauvrit JY, Law M, Xu J, Carson R, Sunenshine P, Chen Q. Time-resolved MR angiography: optimal parallel imaging method. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007; 28(5): 835-8[PubMed]
  • 22. Horie T, Honda M, Okumura Y, Usui K, Kaneko A, Muro I, et al. [Basic examination of CEMRA with 4D time-resolved angiography using keyhole (4D-TRAK) in 3T pelvic region]. Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi. 2008; 64(12): 1532-9[PubMed]
  • 23. Farb RI, Agid R, Willinsky RA, Johnstone DM, Terbrugge KG. Cranial dural arteriovenous fistula: diagnosis and classification with time-resolved MR angiography at 3T. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009; 30(8): 1546-51[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Higashihara H, Osuga K, Ueguchi T, Onishi H, Tanaka H, Maeda N, et al. Usefulness of contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography using time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics applied to description of Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: initial experience. Eur J Radiol. 2012; 81(6): 1134-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Hadizadeh DR, Kukuk GM, Steck DT, Gieseke J, Urbach H, Tschampa HJ, et al. Noninvasive evaluation of cerebral arteriovenous malformations by 4D-MRA for preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up in 56 patients: comparison with DSA and intraoperative findings. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012; 33(6): 1095-101[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Nael K, Villablanca JP, Saleh R, Pope W, Nael A, Laub G, et al. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography at 3T in the evaluation of intracranial aneurysms: a comparison with time-of-flight MR angiography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006; 27(10): 2118-21[PubMed]
  • 27. Buis DR, Bot JC, Barkhof F, Knol DL, Lagerwaard FJ, Slotman BJ, et al. The predictive value of 3D time-of-flight MR angiography in assessment of brain arteriovenous malformation obliteration after radiosurgery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012; 33(2): 232-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Wu Q, Li MH. A comparison of 4D time-resolved MRA with keyhole and 3D time-of-flight MRA at 3.0 T for the evaluation of cerebral aneurysms. BMC Neurol. 2012; 12: 50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Gailloud P. Endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 2005; 8(3): 118-28[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Nishimura S, Hirai T, Sasao A, Kitajima M, Morioka M, Kai Y, et al. Evaluation of dural arteriovenous fistulas with 4D contrast-enhanced MR angiography at 3T. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010; 31(1): 80-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Yu S, Yan L, Yao Y, Wang S, Yang M, Wang B, et al. Noncontrast dynamic MRA in intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM), comparison with time of flight (TOF) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Magn Reson Imaging. 2012; 30(6): 869-77[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Noguchi K, Melhem ER, Kanazawa T, Kubo M, Kuwayama N, Seto H. Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: evaluation with combined 3D time-of-flight MR angiography and MR digital subtraction angiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2004; 182(1): 183-90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Deutschmann HA, Augustin M, Simbrunner J, Unger B, Schoellnast H, Fritz GA, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of 3D time-of-flight MR angiography compared with digital subtraction angiography for follow-up of coiled intracranial aneurysms: influence of aneurysm size. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007; 28(4): 628-34[PubMed]
  • 34. Heidenreich JO, Schilling AM, Unterharnscheidt F, Stendel R, Hartlieb S, Wacker FK, et al. Assessment of 3D-TOF-MRA at 3.0 Tesla in the characterization of the angioarchitecture of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a preliminary study. Acta Radiol. 2007; 48(6): 678-86[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Oleaga L, Dalal SS, Weigele JB, Hurst RW, Lee J, Voorhees A, et al. The role of time-resolved 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography in the assessment and grading of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Eur J Radiol. 2010; 74(3)-21[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Machet A, Portefaix C, Kadziolka K, Robin G, Lanoix O, Pierot L. Brain arteriovenous malformation diagnosis: value of time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography at 3.0T compared to DSA. Neuroradiology. 2012; 54(10): 1099-108[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Klisch J, Strecker R, Hennig J, Schumacher M. Time-resolved projection MRA: clinical application in intracranial vascular malformations. Neuroradiology. 2000; 42(2): 104-7[PubMed]
  • 38. Meckel S, Maier M, Ruiz DS, Yilmaz H, Scheffler K, Radue EW, et al. MR angiography of dural arteriovenous fistulas: diagnosis and follow-up after treatment using a time-resolved 3D contrast-enhanced technique. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007; 28(5): 877-84[PubMed]
  • 39. Altay T. Management of arteriovenous malformations related to Spetzler-Martin grading system. J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg. 2012; 73(5): 307-19[DOI][PubMed]
  • 40. Zipfel GJ, Shah MN, Refai D, Dacey RJ, Derdeyn CP. Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: modification of angiographic classification scales based on new natural history data. Neurosurg Focus. 2009; 26(5)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Ali S, Cashen TA, Carroll TJ, McComb E, Muzaffar M, Shaibani A, et al. Time-resolved spinal MR angiography: initial clinical experience in the evaluation of spinal arteriovenous shunts. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007; 28(9): 1806-10[DOI][PubMed]
  • 42. Taschner CA, Gieseke J, Le Thuc V, Rachdi H, Reyns N, Gauvrit JY, et al. Intracranial arteriovenous malformation: time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography with combination of parallel imaging, keyhole acquisition, and k-space sampling techniques at 1.5 T. Radiology. 2008; 246(3): 871-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Nishimura S, Hirai T, Shigematsu Y, Kitajima M, Morioka M, Kai Y, et al. Evaluation of brain and head and neck tumors with 4D contrast-enhanced MR angiography at 3T. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012; 33(3): 445-8[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments