Iranian Journal of Radiology

Published by: Kowsar

Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion (TRAP) Sequence; Characteristic Gray-Scale and Doppler Ultrasonography Findings

Ayla Buyukkaya 1 , * , Guven Tekbas 2 and Ramazan Buyukkaya 3
Authors Information
1 Department of Radiology, Duzce Ataturk Government Hospital, Duzce, Turkey
2 Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey
3 Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Duzce University, Duzce, Turkey
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Radiology: July 01, 2015, 12 (3); e14979
  • Published Online: July 22, 2015
  • Article Type: Case Report
  • Received: September 22, 2013
  • Accepted: February 1, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/iranjradiol.12(3)2015.14979

To Cite: Buyukkaya A, Tekbas G, Buyukkaya R. Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion (TRAP) Sequence; Characteristic Gray-Scale and Doppler Ultrasonography Findings, Iran J Radiol. 2015 ; 12(3):e14979. doi: 10.5812/iranjradiol.12(3)2015.14979.

Copyright © 2015, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Iranian Society of Radiology. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Introduction
2. Case Presentation
3. Discussion
  • 1. Hecher K, Ville Y, Nicolaides KH. Color Doppler ultrasonography in the identification of communicating vessels in twin-twin transfusion syndrome and acardiac twins. J Ultrasound Med. 1995; 14(1): 37-40[PubMed]
  • 2. Van Allen MI, Smith DW, Shepard TH. Twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence: a study of 14 twin pregnancies with acardius. Semin Perinatol. 1983; 7(4): 285-93[PubMed]
  • 3. Langlotz H, Sauerbrei E, Murray S. Transvaginal Doppler sonographic diagnosis of an acardiac twin at 12 weeks gestation. J Ultrasound Med. 1991; 10(3): 175-9[PubMed]
  • 4. Wong AE, Sepulveda W. Acardiac anomaly: current issues in prenatal assessment and treatment. Prenat Diagn. 2005; 25(9): 796-806[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Moore TR, Gale S, Benirschke K. Perinatal outcome of forty-nine pregnancies complicated by acardiac twinning. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990; 163(3): 907-12[PubMed]
  • 6. Schwarzler P, Ville Y, Moscosco G, Tennstedt C, Bollmann R, Chaoui R. Diagnosis of twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence in the first trimester by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 13(2): 143-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Hartge DR, Weichert J. Prenatal diagnosis and outcome of multiple pregnancies with reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP-sequence). Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012; 286(1): 81-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Dashe JS, Fernandez CO, Twickler DM. Utility of Doppler velocimetry in predicting outcome in twin reversed-arterial perfusion sequence. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 185(1): 135-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Robie GF, Payne GJ, Morgan MA. Selective delivery of an acardiac, acephalic twin. N Engl J Med. 1989; 320(8): 512-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. McCurdy CJ, Childers JM, Seeds JW. Ligation of the umbilical cord of an acardiac-acephalus twin with an endoscopic intrauterine technique. Obstet Gynecol. 1993; 82(4 Pt 2 Suppl): 708-11[PubMed]
  • 11. Corbacioglu A, Gul A, Bakirci IT, Gedikbasi A, Yildirim G. Treatment of twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence with alcohol ablation or bipolar cord coagulation. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2012; 117(3): 257-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Rodeck C, Deans A, Jauniaux E. Thermocoagulation for the early treatment of pregnancy with an acardiac twin. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339(18): 1293-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Deprest JA, Audibert F, Van Schoubroeck D, Hecher K, Mahieu-Caputo D. Bipolar coagulation of the umbilical cord in complicated monochorionic twin pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 182(2): 340-5[PubMed]
  • 14. Berg C, Holst D, Mallmann MR, Gottschalk I, Gembruch U, Geipel A. Early vs late intervention in twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2014; 43(1): 60-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Sullivan AE, Varner MW, Ball RH, Jackson M, Silver RM. The management of acardiac twins: a conservative approach. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003; 189(5): 1310-3[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments