Iranian Journal of Radiology Iranian Journal of Radiology Iran J Radiol http://www.Iranjradiol.com 1735-1065 2008-2711 10.5812/iranjradiol en jalali 2017 5 26 gregorian 2017 5 26 11 1
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.6675 Association Between the Lateral Wall Thickness of the Maxillary Sinus and the Dental Status: Cone Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation Association Between the Lateral Wall Thickness of the Maxillary Sinus and the Dental Status: Cone Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation HEAD & NECK IMAGING research-article research-article Objectives:

To compare the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus in individuals with and without teeth to determine if extraction of the teeth can lead to a significant reduction in the thickness of the maxillary sinus lateral wall or not.

Patients and Methods:

In a retrospective study on fifty patients with an edentulous space, the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus,one centimeter above the sinus floor in the second premolar (P2), first molar (M1) and second molar (M2) areas was determined by cone beam computed tomography scans(CBCTs) and a digital ruler in Romexis F software (Planmeca Romexis 2.4.2.R) and it was compared with values measured in fifty dentated individuals. Three way analysis of variance was applied for comparison after confirmation of the normal distribution of data.

Conclusions:

The differences in the thickness based on the location and dental status necessitates assessment of the wall thickness of the maxillary sinus in addition to the current evaluation of bone thickness between the sinus floor and the edentulous crest before maxillary sinus surgery.

Results:

The mean of the wall thickness in each of these points was lower in patients with edentulous spaces; however it was not significant. There was no association between gender and the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus, but location was associated with different thicknesses.

Background:

Assessment of the lateral wall thickness of the maxillary sinus is very important in decision making for many surgical interventions. The association between the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus and the dental status is not well identified.

Objectives:

To compare the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus in individuals with and without teeth to determine if extraction of the teeth can lead to a significant reduction in the thickness of the maxillary sinus lateral wall or not.

Patients and Methods:

In a retrospective study on fifty patients with an edentulous space, the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus,one centimeter above the sinus floor in the second premolar (P2), first molar (M1) and second molar (M2) areas was determined by cone beam computed tomography scans(CBCTs) and a digital ruler in Romexis F software (Planmeca Romexis 2.4.2.R) and it was compared with values measured in fifty dentated individuals. Three way analysis of variance was applied for comparison after confirmation of the normal distribution of data.

Conclusions:

The differences in the thickness based on the location and dental status necessitates assessment of the wall thickness of the maxillary sinus in addition to the current evaluation of bone thickness between the sinus floor and the edentulous crest before maxillary sinus surgery.

Results:

The mean of the wall thickness in each of these points was lower in patients with edentulous spaces; however it was not significant. There was no association between gender and the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus, but location was associated with different thicknesses.

Background:

Assessment of the lateral wall thickness of the maxillary sinus is very important in decision making for many surgical interventions. The association between the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus and the dental status is not well identified.

Cone-Beam Computed Tomography;Maxillary Sinus;Mouth, Edentulous Cone-Beam Computed Tomography;Maxillary Sinus;Mouth, Edentulous http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6675 Saeedeh Khajehahmadi Saeedeh Khajehahmadi Dental Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Dental Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Amin Rahpeyma Amin Rahpeyma Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +98-5118829501, +98-5118829500 Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +98-5118829501, +98-5118829500 Seyed Hosein Hoseini Zarch Seyed Hosein Hoseini Zarch Dental Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Dental Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.9269 Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Atypical Findings of Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging case-report case-report

We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesions were focal nodular hyperplasia.

We report two cases of focal nodular hyperplasia in patients following gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging confirmed with histopathology. These cases showed an atypical pattern during the delayed-hepatobiliary phase after the injection of gadoxetic acid. One case showed a total defect, and the other showed a peripheral ring-like enhancement without a visible central scar, mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathologic examination demonstrated that the two lesions were focal nodular hyperplasia.

Liver Neoplasms;Focal Nodular Hyperplasia;DTPA Liver Neoplasms;Focal Nodular Hyperplasia;DTPA http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=9269 Jung-Hee Yoon Jung-Hee Yoon Department of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Jwa-dong, Haeundae-gu, Busan, Korea; Department of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Jwa-dong, Haeundae-gu, Busan, Korea. Tel: +82-517970355, Fax: +82-517970397 Department of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Jwa-dong, Haeundae-gu, Busan, Korea; Department of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Jwa-dong, Haeundae-gu, Busan, Korea. Tel: +82-517970355, Fax: +82-517970397 Ji-Yeon Kim Ji-Yeon Kim Department of Pathology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Jwa-dong, Haeundae-gu, Busan, Korea Department of Pathology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Jwa-dong, Haeundae-gu, Busan, Korea
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.3555 Diffusion Weighted MRI for Hepatic Fibrosis: Impact of b-Value Diffusion Weighted MRI for Hepatic Fibrosis: Impact of b-Value ABDOMINAL IMAGING research-article research-article Background

Hepatic fibrosis is a typical complication of chronic liver diseases resulting in cirrhosis that remains a major public health problem worldwide. Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard for diagnosing and staging hepatic fibrosis. Percutaneous liver biopsy; however, is an invasive procedure with risks of complications. Therefore, there is need for alternative non-invasive techniques to assess liver fibrosis and chronic liver diseases. In recent years, MRI techniques, including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), have been developed for in vivo quantification of liver fibrosis.

Objectives

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of diffusion weighted MRI in the diagnosis and quantification of the degree of hepatic fibrosis and to investigate the influence of b-value.

Patients and Methods

Twenty-four patients (13 males, 11 females), with a mean age of 46 years (36-73 years) diagnosed as chronic hepatitis and histopathologically proven liver fibrosis and 22 other patients (8 males, 14 females) with no clinical or biochemical findings of liver disease, with a mean age of 51.2 years (32-75 years) were included in the study. All patients with chronic hepatitis underwent percutaneous liver biopsy by an experienced hepatologist without sonographic guidance. The Knodell histology activity index (HAI) for grading of necroinflammatory changes and Metavir scoring system for staging of the liver fibrosis were used to record the severity of the disease. All patients were examined with a 1.5 Tesla MRI system and the patients underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with a routine hepatic MRI protocol. Different b-values including 250, 500, 750, and 1000 sec/mm 2 were used to calculate apparent diffusion coefficients.

Results

We detected decreased apparent diffusion coefficient values in patients with hepatic fibrosis compared to patients without chronic hepatitis and there was a trend toward decrease in hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient values with an increasing degree of fibrosis.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient measurement with a b-value of 750 sec/mm 2 or greater is useful in accurate quantification of liver fibrosis and necroinflammation.

Background

Hepatic fibrosis is a typical complication of chronic liver diseases resulting in cirrhosis that remains a major public health problem worldwide. Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard for diagnosing and staging hepatic fibrosis. Percutaneous liver biopsy; however, is an invasive procedure with risks of complications. Therefore, there is need for alternative non-invasive techniques to assess liver fibrosis and chronic liver diseases. In recent years, MRI techniques, including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), have been developed for in vivo quantification of liver fibrosis.

Objectives

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of diffusion weighted MRI in the diagnosis and quantification of the degree of hepatic fibrosis and to investigate the influence of b-value.

Patients and Methods

Twenty-four patients (13 males, 11 females), with a mean age of 46 years (36-73 years) diagnosed as chronic hepatitis and histopathologically proven liver fibrosis and 22 other patients (8 males, 14 females) with no clinical or biochemical findings of liver disease, with a mean age of 51.2 years (32-75 years) were included in the study. All patients with chronic hepatitis underwent percutaneous liver biopsy by an experienced hepatologist without sonographic guidance. The Knodell histology activity index (HAI) for grading of necroinflammatory changes and Metavir scoring system for staging of the liver fibrosis were used to record the severity of the disease. All patients were examined with a 1.5 Tesla MRI system and the patients underwent diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) with a routine hepatic MRI protocol. Different b-values including 250, 500, 750, and 1000 sec/mm 2 were used to calculate apparent diffusion coefficients.

Results

We detected decreased apparent diffusion coefficient values in patients with hepatic fibrosis compared to patients without chronic hepatitis and there was a trend toward decrease in hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient values with an increasing degree of fibrosis.

Conclusions

Our findings suggest that hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient measurement with a b-value of 750 sec/mm 2 or greater is useful in accurate quantification of liver fibrosis and necroinflammation.

Liver Cirrhosis;Magnetic Resonance Imaging;Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Liver Cirrhosis;Magnetic Resonance Imaging;Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=3555 Huseyin Ozkurt Huseyin Ozkurt Department of Radiology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Radiology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Tel: +90-5325958625, Fax: +90-2122965467, E-mail:drhozkurt@yahoo.com Department of Radiology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Radiology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Tel: +90-5325958625, Fax: +90-2122965467, E-mail:drhozkurt@yahoo.com Firat Keskiner Firat Keskiner Department of Radiology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Radiology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Ozan Karatag Ozan Karatag Department of Radiology, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Medicine, Canakkale, Turkey Department of Radiology, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University Faculty of Medicine, Canakkale, Turkey Canan Alkim Canan Alkim Department of Gastroenterology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Gastroenterology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Sukru Mehmet Erturk Sukru Mehmet Erturk Department of Radiology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Radiology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Muzaffer Basak Muzaffer Basak Department of Radiology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Radiology, Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.4031 Three Cases of Elongated Mandibular Coronoid Process with Different Presentations Three Cases of Elongated Mandibular Coronoid Process with Different Presentations case-report case-report

Abnormal elongation of the mandibular coronoid process is rare and its etiology is not yet elucidated. The aim of this report is to demonstrate and discuss the relationship between elongated mandibular coronoid process and limitation of mouth opening with cone beam computed tomography. Although the clinical characteristic of elongation of the coronoid process is mandibular limitation, in this report, one case had problem with mouth opening. Axial scans revealed that the distance between the coronoid process and the inner face of the frontal part of the zygomatic bone may cause limitation in mouth opening. In conclusion, instead of the length, the distance between the coronoid process and the inner face of the frontal part of the zygomatic bone may be the actual reason for limitation of mouth opening. This may prevent misdiagnosis.

Abnormal elongation of the mandibular coronoid process is rare and its etiology is not yet elucidated. The aim of this report is to demonstrate and discuss the relationship between elongated mandibular coronoid process and limitation of mouth opening with cone beam computed tomography. Although the clinical characteristic of elongation of the coronoid process is mandibular limitation, in this report, one case had problem with mouth opening. Axial scans revealed that the distance between the coronoid process and the inner face of the frontal part of the zygomatic bone may cause limitation in mouth opening. In conclusion, instead of the length, the distance between the coronoid process and the inner face of the frontal part of the zygomatic bone may be the actual reason for limitation of mouth opening. This may prevent misdiagnosis.

Mandible;Cone-Beam Computed Tomography;Mouth Mandible;Cone-Beam Computed Tomography;Mouth http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4031 Mehmet Ilguy Mehmet Ilguy Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey Pinar Kursoglu Pinar Kursoglu Department of Prosthodontics, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Prosthodontics, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey Dilhan Ilguy Dilhan Ilguy Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey. Fax: +90-2163636211 Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey. Fax: +90-2163636211
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.4242 Coexistence of Ankylosing Spondylitis and Hereditary Multiple Exostoses:Coincidence or Association Coexistence of Ankylosing Spondylitis and Hereditary Multiple Exostoses:Coincidence or Association case-report case-report

Coexisting ankylosing spondylitis and hereditary multiple exostoses have rarely been reported (three patients) previously. A 27-year-old man with hereditary multiple exostoses is presented as a fourth report. At the age of 15 years, the patient had multiple exostoses around the knee, ankle and shoulder joints. He was diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis 3 years ago. The patient’s sister and his 3 brothers also have multiple exostoses without any family history of spondyloarthropathy or inflammatory arthritis. The aim of this report is to discuss an interesting coexistence of these two diseases. The increasing number of reported patients who have a coexistence of these two diseases might suggest that the association of these two diseases is stronger than a coincidence.

Coexisting ankylosing spondylitis and hereditary multiple exostoses have rarely been reported (three patients) previously. A 27-year-old man with hereditary multiple exostoses is presented as a fourth report. At the age of 15 years, the patient had multiple exostoses around the knee, ankle and shoulder joints. He was diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis 3 years ago. The patient’s sister and his 3 brothers also have multiple exostoses without any family history of spondyloarthropathy or inflammatory arthritis. The aim of this report is to discuss an interesting coexistence of these two diseases. The increasing number of reported patients who have a coexistence of these two diseases might suggest that the association of these two diseases is stronger than a coincidence.

Spondylitis, Ankylosing;Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary Spondylitis, Ankylosing;Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4242 Abdolrahman Rostamian Abdolrahman Rostamian Department of Rheumatology, Vali-Asr Hospital, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center for Research on Occupational Disease, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Department of Rheumatology, Vali-Asr Hospital, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Center for Research on Occupational Disease, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Hamed Mazoochy Hamed Mazoochy Department of Orthopedics, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Department of Orthopedics, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Shafieh Movassaghi Shafieh Movassaghi Department of Rheumatology, Vali-Asr Hospital, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Department of Rheumatology, Vali-Asr Hospital, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi Department of Orthopedics, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Department of Orthopedics, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Elham Sadeghzadeh Elham Sadeghzadeh Department of Rheumatology, Vali-Asr Hospital, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Department of Rheumatology, Vali-Asr Hospital, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Fatemeh Shahbazi Fatemeh Shahbazi Department of Rheumatology, Vali-Asr Hospital, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Karaj, Iran; Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Karaj, Iran , +98-2161192376 Department of Rheumatology, Vali-Asr Hospital, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Karaj, Iran; Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Karaj, Iran , +98-2161192376 Hossein Ghanaati Hossein Ghanaati Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.7467 Azygos Vein Aneurysm as a Posterior Mediastinal Mass Discovered After Minor Chest Trauma Azygos Vein Aneurysm as a Posterior Mediastinal Mass Discovered After Minor Chest Trauma Vascular Imaging case-report case-report

Azygos vein aneurysm is a rare cause of a posterior or paratracheal mediastinal mass. Trauma or conditions causing elevated flow or pressure in the azygos system, such as cardiac failure or cirrhosis of the liver are secondary causes of aneurysm of the azygos vein. We report a case of asymptomatic saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein in a 45-year-old man with blunt minor chest trauma. The azygos vein aneurysm was managed by conservative treatment.

Azygos vein aneurysm is a rare cause of a posterior or paratracheal mediastinal mass. Trauma or conditions causing elevated flow or pressure in the azygos system, such as cardiac failure or cirrhosis of the liver are secondary causes of aneurysm of the azygos vein. We report a case of asymptomatic saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein in a 45-year-old man with blunt minor chest trauma. The azygos vein aneurysm was managed by conservative treatment.

Azygos Vein;Aneurysm;Mediastinum;Tomography, X-Ray Computed;Magnetic Resonance Angiography Azygos Vein;Aneurysm;Mediastinum;Tomography, X-Ray Computed;Magnetic Resonance Angiography http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=7467 Gholamreza Mohajeri Gholamreza Mohajeri Department of Surgery, Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Department of Surgery, Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Ali Hekmatnia Ali Hekmatnia Department of Radiology, Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Department of Radiology, Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Hossein Ahrar Hossein Ahrar Department of Radiology, Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Radiology, Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Tel: +98-9124548566 Department of Radiology, Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Radiology, Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Tel: +98-9124548566 Farzane Hekmatnia Farzane Hekmatnia London University of Medical Sciences, London, UK London University of Medical Sciences, London, UK Reza Basiratnia Reza Basiratnia Department of Radiology, Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Department of Radiology, Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.4617 Automatic Bolus Tracking Versus Fixed Time-Delay Technique in Biphasic Multidetector Computed Tomography of the Abdomen Automatic Bolus Tracking Versus Fixed Time-Delay Technique in Biphasic Multidetector Computed Tomography of the Abdomen ABDOMINAL IMAGING research-article research-article Conclusions

The automatic bolus-tracking method, results in higher contrast enhancement of the aorta and spleen at the portal phase, but has no effect on liver enhancement. However, bolus tracking is associated with reduced variability for liver enhancement among different patients.

Results

Forty-eight patients (23 male, 25 female, mean age=56.4±13.5 years) were included. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen at the arterial phase was similar between the two groups (P > 0.05). Regarding the portal phase, the aorta and spleen were more enhanced in the bolus-tracking group (P<0.001). The bolus tracking provided more homogeneous contrast enhancement among different patients than the fixed time-delay technique in the liver at portal phase, but not at the arterial phase.

Patients and Methods

Adult patients referred for spiral CT of the abdomen were randomized into two groups; in group 1, the arterial and portal phases of spiral scans were started 25 s and 55 s after the start of contrast material administration; in group 2, using the automatic bolus tracking software, repetitive monitoring scans were performed within the lumen of the descending aorta as the region of interest with the threshold of starting the diagnostic scans as 60 HU. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen were compared between the groups.

Background

Bolus tracking can individualize time delay for the start of scans in spiral computed tomography (CT).

Objectives

We compared automatic bolus tracking method with fixed time-delay technique in biphasic contrast enhancement during multidetector CT of abdomen.

Conclusions

The automatic bolus-tracking method, results in higher contrast enhancement of the aorta and spleen at the portal phase, but has no effect on liver enhancement. However, bolus tracking is associated with reduced variability for liver enhancement among different patients.

Results

Forty-eight patients (23 male, 25 female, mean age=56.4±13.5 years) were included. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen at the arterial phase was similar between the two groups (P > 0.05). Regarding the portal phase, the aorta and spleen were more enhanced in the bolus-tracking group (P<0.001). The bolus tracking provided more homogeneous contrast enhancement among different patients than the fixed time-delay technique in the liver at portal phase, but not at the arterial phase.

Patients and Methods

Adult patients referred for spiral CT of the abdomen were randomized into two groups; in group 1, the arterial and portal phases of spiral scans were started 25 s and 55 s after the start of contrast material administration; in group 2, using the automatic bolus tracking software, repetitive monitoring scans were performed within the lumen of the descending aorta as the region of interest with the threshold of starting the diagnostic scans as 60 HU. The contrast enhancement of the aorta, liver, and spleen were compared between the groups.

Background

Bolus tracking can individualize time delay for the start of scans in spiral computed tomography (CT).

Objectives

We compared automatic bolus tracking method with fixed time-delay technique in biphasic contrast enhancement during multidetector CT of abdomen.

Multidetector Computed Tomography;Tomography, Spiral Computed Multidetector Computed Tomography;Tomography, Spiral Computed http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=4617 Atoosa Adibi Atoosa Adibi Department of Radiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Radiology, Alzahra Hospital, Soffeh Ave., Isfahan, Iran. Tel: +983116255555, Fax: +98-3116687898 Department of Radiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Radiology, Alzahra Hospital, Soffeh Ave., Isfahan, Iran. Tel: +983116255555, Fax: +98-3116687898 Ali Shahbazi Ali Shahbazi Department of Radiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran Department of Radiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.11485 In Vitro Detection of Dental Root Fractures with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) In Vitro Detection of Dental Root Fractures with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) research-article research-article Conclusions:

Detailed information about root fractures may be obtained using CBCT.

Results:

According to the fracture types and fracture presence, there was an overall statistically significant agreement between the key and readings. Kappa values for intra observer agreement ranged between 0.705 and 0.804 indicating that each observer gave acceptable ratings for the type and presence of fractures.

Objectives:

The aim of this study is to demonstrate the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting dental root fractures in vitro.

Materials and Methods:

An in vitro model consisting of 210 recently extracted human mandibular teeth was used. Root fractures were created by mechanical force. The teeth were placed randomly in the empty dental alveoli of a dry human mandible and 15 different dental arcs were created. Images were taken with a unit Iluma ultra cone-beam CT scanner (Imtec Corporation, Germany). Three dental radiologists separately evaluated the images.

Background:

Since the diagnosis of non-displaced longitudinal fractures present difficulties for the dentist, three-dimensional evaluation is necessary.

Conclusions:

Detailed information about root fractures may be obtained using CBCT.

Results:

According to the fracture types and fracture presence, there was an overall statistically significant agreement between the key and readings. Kappa values for intra observer agreement ranged between 0.705 and 0.804 indicating that each observer gave acceptable ratings for the type and presence of fractures.

Objectives:

The aim of this study is to demonstrate the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting dental root fractures in vitro.

Materials and Methods:

An in vitro model consisting of 210 recently extracted human mandibular teeth was used. Root fractures were created by mechanical force. The teeth were placed randomly in the empty dental alveoli of a dry human mandible and 15 different dental arcs were created. Images were taken with a unit Iluma ultra cone-beam CT scanner (Imtec Corporation, Germany). Three dental radiologists separately evaluated the images.

Background:

Since the diagnosis of non-displaced longitudinal fractures present difficulties for the dentist, three-dimensional evaluation is necessary.

Tooth Fractures;In Vitro;Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Tooth Fractures;In Vitro;Cone-Beam Computed Tomography http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=11485 Erdogan Fisekcioglu Erdogan Fisekcioglu Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey. Tel: +90-5325626256, Fax: +90-2163636211 Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey; Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey. Tel: +90-5325626256, Fax: +90-2163636211 Semanur Dolekoglu Semanur Dolekoglu Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey Mehmet Ilguy Mehmet Ilguy Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey Nilufer Ersan Nilufer Ersan Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey Dilhan Ilguy Dilhan Ilguy Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.11260 Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma UROGENITAL IMAGING case-report case-report

Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma.

Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma.

Teratoma;Ultrasound;Computed Tomography;Cystic;Kidney Teratoma;Ultrasound;Computed Tomography;Cystic;Kidney http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=11260 Alpaslan Yavuz Alpaslan Yavuz Department of Radiology, Yuzuncu Yil University Hospital, Ercis Yolu, Geve Kampus, Van, Turkey; Department of Radiology, Yuzuncu Yil University Hospital, Ercis Yolu, Geve Kampus, Van, Turkey. Tel: +90-5323424959, Fax: +90-4322168352 Department of Radiology, Yuzuncu Yil University Hospital, Ercis Yolu, Geve Kampus, Van, Turkey; Department of Radiology, Yuzuncu Yil University Hospital, Ercis Yolu, Geve Kampus, Van, Turkey. Tel: +90-5323424959, Fax: +90-4322168352 Kagan Ceken Kagan Ceken Department of Radiology, Akdeniz University, Kampus Antalya, Turkey Department of Radiology, Akdeniz University, Kampus Antalya, Turkey Emel Alimoglu Emel Alimoglu Department of Radiology, Akdeniz University, Kampus Antalya, Turkey Department of Radiology, Akdeniz University, Kampus Antalya, Turkey Bahar Akkaya Bahar Akkaya Department of Pathology, Akdeniz University, Kampus Antalya, Turkey Department of Pathology, Akdeniz University, Kampus Antalya, Turkey
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.11492 Early Ultrasound Assessment of Renal Transplantation as the Valuable Biomarker of Long Lasting Graft Survival: A Cross-Sectional Study Early Ultrasound Assessment of Renal Transplantation as the Valuable Biomarker of Long Lasting Graft Survival: A Cross-Sectional Study UROGENITAL IMAGING and CONTRAST MEDIA research-article research-article Conclusions:

In this study, kidney transplant recipients with a lower RI and PI and a higher EDV at 1week showed better graft function at 6 months after transplantation.

Results:

Fourteen patients (15.4%) had impaired graft function after 6 months (GFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed significant correlation between GFR at 6 months and RI, PI and EDV with a P value of 0.026, 0.016 and 0.015, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that GFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 at 6 months was significantly associated with RI>0.7 (odds ratio=2.20, P value=0.004) and PI>1.3 (odds ratio=2.74, P value<0.001) and EDV<9 cm/Sec (odds ratio=1.83, P value=0.03).

Background:

To date, there has been little agreement on the use of ultrasonographic parameters in predicting the long-term outcome after transplantation. This study evaluates whether ultrasonography of the graft performed in the early stage after transplantation is a valuable predictor for long-term-outcome.

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic parameters (resistive index [RI], pulsatility index[PI], end diastolic velocity [EDV], graft length and graft parenchymal volume) measured within the first week after transplantation with 6 months graft function.

Patients and Methods:

A cross-sectional study was performed on 91 (46 males and 45 females) living renal transplants between April 2011 and February 2013. All patients underwent an ultrasonography at the first week after transplantation. Intrarenal Doppler indices including RI, PI and EDV were measured at the interlobar artery level and the graft length and parenchymal volume were defined with gray scale ultrasonography. Graft function was estimated at 6months by glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Unpaired t-test and multivariate-linear and logistic regression analysis were used to estimate the relationship between ultrasonographic parameters and GFR.

Conclusions:

In this study, kidney transplant recipients with a lower RI and PI and a higher EDV at 1week showed better graft function at 6 months after transplantation.

Results:

Fourteen patients (15.4%) had impaired graft function after 6 months (GFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed significant correlation between GFR at 6 months and RI, PI and EDV with a P value of 0.026, 0.016 and 0.015, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that GFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 at 6 months was significantly associated with RI>0.7 (odds ratio=2.20, P value=0.004) and PI>1.3 (odds ratio=2.74, P value<0.001) and EDV<9 cm/Sec (odds ratio=1.83, P value=0.03).

Background:

To date, there has been little agreement on the use of ultrasonographic parameters in predicting the long-term outcome after transplantation. This study evaluates whether ultrasonography of the graft performed in the early stage after transplantation is a valuable predictor for long-term-outcome.

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic parameters (resistive index [RI], pulsatility index[PI], end diastolic velocity [EDV], graft length and graft parenchymal volume) measured within the first week after transplantation with 6 months graft function.

Patients and Methods:

A cross-sectional study was performed on 91 (46 males and 45 females) living renal transplants between April 2011 and February 2013. All patients underwent an ultrasonography at the first week after transplantation. Intrarenal Doppler indices including RI, PI and EDV were measured at the interlobar artery level and the graft length and parenchymal volume were defined with gray scale ultrasonography. Graft function was estimated at 6months by glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Unpaired t-test and multivariate-linear and logistic regression analysis were used to estimate the relationship between ultrasonographic parameters and GFR.

Kidney Transplantation;Ultrasonography;Glomerular Filtration Rate Kidney Transplantation;Ultrasonography;Glomerular Filtration Rate http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=11492 Ahmad Enhesari Ahmad Enhesari Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Saeid Mardpour Saeid Mardpour Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Tel: +98-9128112932, Fax: +98-3413222247 Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Tel: +98-9128112932, Fax: +98-3413222247 Zohreh Makki Zohreh Makki Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Soura Mardpour Soura Mardpour Applied Cell Sciences Department, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Applied Cell Sciences Department, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.5050 Quantitative Evaluation of Iranian Radiology Papers and Its Comparison with Selected Countries Quantitative Evaluation of Iranian Radiology Papers and Its Comparison with Selected Countries research-article research-article Conclusion

To diminish the gap between Iranian scientific radiology papers and other competitor countries in the region and achievement of document 2025 goals, multifold effort of the society of radiology is necessary.

Results

Results of the current study showed a ratio of 0.19% for Iranian papers in PubMed database published in 2009. In addition, in 2009, Iranian papers constituted 0.29% of the Scopus scientific database. The proportion of Iranian papers in the understudy region was 7.6%.

Materials and Methods

Radiology papers were evaluated in the context of medical field audit using retrospective model. We used the related databases of biomedical sciences for extraction of articles related to radiology. In the next step, the situation of radiology scientific products of the country were determined with respect to the under study regional countries.

Objectives

In the current study, we evaluate the current situation of Iranian scientists in the field of radiology and compare it with the selected countries in terms of scientific papers. For this purpose, we used scientometric tools to quantitatively assess the scientific papers in the field of radiology.

Background

Recent technological developments in medicine, including modern radiology have promoted the impact of scientific researches on social life. The scientific outputs such as article and patents are products that show the scientists’ attempt to access these achievements.

Conclusion

To diminish the gap between Iranian scientific radiology papers and other competitor countries in the region and achievement of document 2025 goals, multifold effort of the society of radiology is necessary.

Results

Results of the current study showed a ratio of 0.19% for Iranian papers in PubMed database published in 2009. In addition, in 2009, Iranian papers constituted 0.29% of the Scopus scientific database. The proportion of Iranian papers in the understudy region was 7.6%.

Materials and Methods

Radiology papers were evaluated in the context of medical field audit using retrospective model. We used the related databases of biomedical sciences for extraction of articles related to radiology. In the next step, the situation of radiology scientific products of the country were determined with respect to the under study regional countries.

Objectives

In the current study, we evaluate the current situation of Iranian scientists in the field of radiology and compare it with the selected countries in terms of scientific papers. For this purpose, we used scientometric tools to quantitatively assess the scientific papers in the field of radiology.

Background

Recent technological developments in medicine, including modern radiology have promoted the impact of scientific researches on social life. The scientific outputs such as article and patents are products that show the scientists’ attempt to access these achievements.

Societies, Scientific;Radiology;Geographic Locations Societies, Scientific;Radiology;Geographic Locations http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=5050 Mahyar Ghafoori Mahyar Ghafoori Department of Radiology, Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Department of Radiology, Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Hasan Emami Hasan Emami IT and Statistics Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; IT and Statistics Center, Shahid Beheshti, University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-9121055900 IT and Statistics Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; IT and Statistics Center, Shahid Beheshti, University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-9121055900 Abdolrasoul Sedaghat Abdolrasoul Sedaghat Iranian Society of Radiology, Tehran, Iran Iranian Society of Radiology, Tehran, Iran Mohammad Ghiasi Mohammad Ghiasi Health Services Administration, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Health Services Administration, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Madjid Shakiba Madjid Shakiba Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Manijeh Alavi Manijeh Alavi Deputy of Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran Deputy of Research and Technology, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.7683 Intraosseous Benign Lesions of the Jaws: A Radiographic Study Intraosseous Benign Lesions of the Jaws: A Radiographic Study brief-report brief-report Conclusions:

Despite its known shortcomings, like every other diagnostic tool, panoramic radiography can contribute to the early detection of maxillary/mandibular lesions that in turn enable the dentist to devise an appropriate treatment plan.

Results:

Cysts were mostly more common in men despite the equal propensity of both genders to benign tumors. In contrast, women showed a higher frequency of tumor-like lesions. The most common site of involvement was the posterior mandible, with peri-apical tooth lesions as the most prevalent dental association. Radiographically, what we most encountered was unilocular radiolucency pertaining to cysts and benign tumors; nevertheless, tumor-like lesions tended to present with a well-defined radiopacity.

Objectives:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the panoramic radiographic findings pertaining to benign and tumoral lesions in the maxilla and mandible.

Patients and Methods:

Applying a case series method, panoramic images of 61 patients with cysts, benign tumors and tumor-like lesions in the jaws who were referred to Hamedan dental school between 2009 and 2011 were evaluated by two radiologists. They were both blind to histopathological results as well as the objectives of our study. Lesions were assessed based on their location, periphery, internal structure and impaction on the surrounding structures. Then the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive tables.

Background:

Benign maxillo-mandibular tumors and cysts, which are relatively common findings on radiographs, namely the ubiquitous panoramic view, have to be dealt with by dentists on a daily basis.

Conclusions:

Despite its known shortcomings, like every other diagnostic tool, panoramic radiography can contribute to the early detection of maxillary/mandibular lesions that in turn enable the dentist to devise an appropriate treatment plan.

Results:

Cysts were mostly more common in men despite the equal propensity of both genders to benign tumors. In contrast, women showed a higher frequency of tumor-like lesions. The most common site of involvement was the posterior mandible, with peri-apical tooth lesions as the most prevalent dental association. Radiographically, what we most encountered was unilocular radiolucency pertaining to cysts and benign tumors; nevertheless, tumor-like lesions tended to present with a well-defined radiopacity.

Objectives:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the panoramic radiographic findings pertaining to benign and tumoral lesions in the maxilla and mandible.

Patients and Methods:

Applying a case series method, panoramic images of 61 patients with cysts, benign tumors and tumor-like lesions in the jaws who were referred to Hamedan dental school between 2009 and 2011 were evaluated by two radiologists. They were both blind to histopathological results as well as the objectives of our study. Lesions were assessed based on their location, periphery, internal structure and impaction on the surrounding structures. Then the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive tables.

Background:

Benign maxillo-mandibular tumors and cysts, which are relatively common findings on radiographs, namely the ubiquitous panoramic view, have to be dealt with by dentists on a daily basis.

Panoramic Radiography;Cystic Lesions;Tumoral Lesions;Maxilla, Mandible Panoramic Radiography;Cystic Lesions;Tumoral Lesions;Maxilla, Mandible http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=7683 Adineh Javadian Langaroodi Adineh Javadian Langaroodi Dental Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +98-5118829501, Fax: +98-5117626058 Dental Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Tel: +98-5118829501, Fax: +98-5117626058 Sima Sadat Lari Sima Sadat Lari Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran Abbas Shokri Abbas Shokri Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran Seyed Hossein Hoseini Zarch Seyed Hossein Hoseini Zarch Dental Material Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Dental Material Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Shokofeh Jamshidi Shokofeh Jamshidi Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology , School of Dentistry, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology , School of Dentistry, Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran Peyman Akbari Peyman Akbari Private Dental Practice, Hamedan, Iran Private Dental Practice, Hamedan, Iran