Iranian Journal of Radiology Iranian Journal of Radiology Iran J Radiol http://www.Iranjradiol.com 1735-1065 2008-2711 10.5812/iranjradiol en jalali 2017 5 26 gregorian 2017 5 26 9 1
en Boards and Commttees Boards and Commttees issue-information issue-information -- -- http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=12003
en Table of Contents Table of Contents issue-information issue-information http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=12004
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.6686 Value of Proton-MR-Spectroscopy in the Diagnosis of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy; Correlation of Metabolite Alterations With Electroencephalography Value of Proton-MR-Spectroscopy in the Diagnosis of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy; Correlation of Metabolite Alterations With Electroencephalography research-article research-article Background

Epilepsy, a well-known mostly idiopathic neurologic disorder, has to be correctly diagnosed and properly treated. Up to now, several diagnostic approaches have been processed to determine the epileptic focus.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to discover whether proton-MR-spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) aids in the diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy in conjunction with classical electroencephalography (EEG) findings.

Patients and Methods

Totally, 70 mesial temporal zones consisting of 39 right hippocampi and 31 left hippocampi of 46 patients (25 male, 21 female) were analyzed by proton MRSI. All patients underwent a clinical neurologic examination, scalp EEG recording and prolonged video EEG monitoring. Partial seizures on the right, left or both sides were recorded in all patients. All patients were under medical treatment and none of the patients underwent amygdalohippocampectomy and similar surgical procedures.

Results

The normal average lactate (Lac), phosphocreatine, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), myo-inositol, glutamate and glutamine (Glx) peaks and Nacetyl aspartate/Cr, NAA/ Cho + Cr, Cho/Cr ratios were measured from the healthy opposite hippocampi or from the control subjects. The Lac, glutamate and glutamine (Glx), myo-inositol, phosphocreatine and NAA metabolites plus Cho/Cr ratio showed statistical difference between the normal and the epileptic hippocampi. Cho, Cr metabolites plus NAA/Cr, NAA/ Cho + Cr ratios were almost the same between the groups. The sensitivity of Proton-MR-Spectroscopy for lateralization of the epileptic foci in all patients was 96% and the specificity was 50%.

Conclusions

Proton-MRSI can easily be considered as an alternative modality of choice in the diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy and in the future; Proton-MR-Spectroscopy may become the most important technique used in epilepsy centers.

Background

Epilepsy, a well-known mostly idiopathic neurologic disorder, has to be correctly diagnosed and properly treated. Up to now, several diagnostic approaches have been processed to determine the epileptic focus.

Objectives

The aim of this study was to discover whether proton-MR-spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) aids in the diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy in conjunction with classical electroencephalography (EEG) findings.

Patients and Methods

Totally, 70 mesial temporal zones consisting of 39 right hippocampi and 31 left hippocampi of 46 patients (25 male, 21 female) were analyzed by proton MRSI. All patients underwent a clinical neurologic examination, scalp EEG recording and prolonged video EEG monitoring. Partial seizures on the right, left or both sides were recorded in all patients. All patients were under medical treatment and none of the patients underwent amygdalohippocampectomy and similar surgical procedures.

Results

The normal average lactate (Lac), phosphocreatine, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), choline (Cho), myo-inositol, glutamate and glutamine (Glx) peaks and Nacetyl aspartate/Cr, NAA/ Cho + Cr, Cho/Cr ratios were measured from the healthy opposite hippocampi or from the control subjects. The Lac, glutamate and glutamine (Glx), myo-inositol, phosphocreatine and NAA metabolites plus Cho/Cr ratio showed statistical difference between the normal and the epileptic hippocampi. Cho, Cr metabolites plus NAA/Cr, NAA/ Cho + Cr ratios were almost the same between the groups. The sensitivity of Proton-MR-Spectroscopy for lateralization of the epileptic foci in all patients was 96% and the specificity was 50%.

Conclusions

Proton-MRSI can easily be considered as an alternative modality of choice in the diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy and in the future; Proton-MR-Spectroscopy may become the most important technique used in epilepsy centers.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Epilepsy Temporal Lobe Electroencephalography Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Epilepsy Temporal Lobe Electroencephalography 1 11 http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6686 Hasan Aydin Hasan Aydin MRI Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Irfan Bastug St.,, Turkey +90-5057994013, volkankizilgoz@gmail.com MRI Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Irfan Bastug St.,, Turkey +90-5057994013, volkankizilgoz@gmail.com Nilay Aydin Oktay Nilay Aydin Oktay MRI Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Irfan Bastug St.,, Turkey +90-5057994013, volkankizilgoz@gmail.com MRI Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Irfan Bastug St.,, Turkey +90-5057994013, volkankizilgoz@gmail.com Volkan Kizilgoz Volkan Kizilgoz MRI Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Irfan Bastug St.,, Turkey +90-5057994013, volkankizilgoz@gmail.com; MRI Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Irfan Bastug St.,, Turkey +90-5057994013, volkankizilgoz@gmail.com MRI Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Irfan Bastug St.,, Turkey +90-5057994013, volkankizilgoz@gmail.com; MRI Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Irfan Bastug St.,, Turkey +90-5057994013, volkankizilgoz@gmail.com Elif Altin Altin Elif Altin Altin MRI Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Irfan Bastug St.,, Turkey +90-5057994013, volkankizilgoz@gmail.com MRI Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Irfan Bastug St.,, Turkey +90-5057994013, volkankizilgoz@gmail.com Idil Gunes Tatar Idil Gunes Tatar MRI Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Irfan Bastug St.,, Turkey +90-5057994013, volkankizilgoz@gmail.com MRI Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Irfan Bastug St.,, Turkey +90-5057994013, volkankizilgoz@gmail.com Baki Hekimoglu Baki Hekimoglu Vascular Interventional Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Turkey Vascular Interventional Department, S.B. Ankara Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Turkey
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.6730 Color Doppler Indices of Orbital Arterial Flow in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients; Are the Changes Related to Chronic Hemodialysis or Chronic Renal Failure? Color Doppler Indices of Orbital Arterial Flow in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients; Are the Changes Related to Chronic Hemodialysis or Chronic Renal Failure? research-article research-article Background

Endothelial injury is a well-known complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis. One of the sites in which early vascular changes may be detected is the retina. Of course, these flow changes may not be detected in ophthalmologic exams, but it seems that color Doppler sonography of retinal arteries may be helpful in these cases.

Objectives

In previous studies on CKD patients who underwent chronic hemodialysis, hemodynamic changes were noted in retinal arteries, but no study has been performed to determine which of the two processes (CKD or chronic hemodialysis) can produce these changes. In this study, we tried to answer this question.

Patients and Methods

Doppler ultrasonography of the orbital vasculature including the ophthalmic artery and the central retinal artery was carried out in 17 patients (34 eyes) with chronic renal failure (CRF) who underwent hemodialysis, 17 patients (34 eyes) with CRF without a history of hemodialysis and 17 normal patients (34 eyes). The peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistance index were measured excluding hypertensive, diabetic patients and patients with cardiovascular disease.

Results

The mean PSV and EDV were lower only in the ophthalmic artery of CRF patients irrespective of the history of hemodialysis (PSV was 35.2 in hemodialysis, 38.8 in CRF and 51.6 in normal patients, P value = 0.001 and EDV was 7.4, 9.4, 11.8, respectively, P value = 0.001) with no significant difference in the resistance index of the ophthalmic artery and other parameters [EDV, PSV, Resistance Index (RI)] in the central retinal artery.

Conclusions

The mean PSV and DSV in the ophthalmic artery were lower only in the ophthalmic artery of CRF patients regardless of the history of hemodialysis. No significant difference in the resistance index of the ophthalmic artery and other parameters (EDV, PSV) of the central retinal artery were noted between different groups. These findings suggest that microvascular disease and endothelial cell dysfunction of the orbital vasculature are related to CRF and not to chronic hemodialysis.

Background

Endothelial injury is a well-known complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis. One of the sites in which early vascular changes may be detected is the retina. Of course, these flow changes may not be detected in ophthalmologic exams, but it seems that color Doppler sonography of retinal arteries may be helpful in these cases.

Objectives

In previous studies on CKD patients who underwent chronic hemodialysis, hemodynamic changes were noted in retinal arteries, but no study has been performed to determine which of the two processes (CKD or chronic hemodialysis) can produce these changes. In this study, we tried to answer this question.

Patients and Methods

Doppler ultrasonography of the orbital vasculature including the ophthalmic artery and the central retinal artery was carried out in 17 patients (34 eyes) with chronic renal failure (CRF) who underwent hemodialysis, 17 patients (34 eyes) with CRF without a history of hemodialysis and 17 normal patients (34 eyes). The peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistance index were measured excluding hypertensive, diabetic patients and patients with cardiovascular disease.

Results

The mean PSV and EDV were lower only in the ophthalmic artery of CRF patients irrespective of the history of hemodialysis (PSV was 35.2 in hemodialysis, 38.8 in CRF and 51.6 in normal patients, P value = 0.001 and EDV was 7.4, 9.4, 11.8, respectively, P value = 0.001) with no significant difference in the resistance index of the ophthalmic artery and other parameters [EDV, PSV, Resistance Index (RI)] in the central retinal artery.

Conclusions

The mean PSV and DSV in the ophthalmic artery were lower only in the ophthalmic artery of CRF patients regardless of the history of hemodialysis. No significant difference in the resistance index of the ophthalmic artery and other parameters (EDV, PSV) of the central retinal artery were noted between different groups. These findings suggest that microvascular disease and endothelial cell dysfunction of the orbital vasculature are related to CRF and not to chronic hemodialysis.

Ultrasonography Doppler Color Kidney Failure Chronic Renal Dialysis Ultrasonography Doppler Color Kidney Failure Chronic Renal Dialysis 12 6 http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6730 Hadi Rokni Yazdi Hadi Rokni Yazdi Department of Radiology, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran +98-2161192670, rokniyaz@sina.tums.ac.ir; Department of Radiology, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran +98-2161192670, rokniyaz@sina.tums.ac.ir Department of Radiology, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran +98-2161192670, rokniyaz@sina.tums.ac.ir; Department of Radiology, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran +98-2161192670, rokniyaz@sina.tums.ac.ir Safoura Faraji Safoura Faraji Department of Radiology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) , Iran Department of Radiology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) , Iran Farokhlegha Ahmadi Farokhlegha Ahmadi Department of Nephrology, Nephrology Research Center (NRC), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) , Iran Department of Nephrology, Nephrology Research Center (NRC), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) , Iran Reza Shahmirzae Reza Shahmirzae Department of Cardiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran Department of Cardiology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.6747 Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital and Conventional Radiography in the Detection of Non-Cavitated Approximal Dental Caries Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital and Conventional Radiography in the Detection of Non-Cavitated Approximal Dental Caries head and neck imaging research-article research-article Background

Radiography plays an important role in the detection of interproximal caries.

Objectives

The aim of the present study was to determine diagnostic accuracy of chargecoupled devices (CCD), Photo Stimulable Phosphor (PSP) and film radiography in detecting non-cavitated caries.

Patients and Methods

Seventy-two non-cavitated approximal surfaces of extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed under standardized conditions using three intraoral modalities: CCD Dixi3 (Planmeca, Finland), PSP Digora PCT (Soredex, Finland), and E-speed film (Kodak, USA). Radiographs were interpreted by four observers and caries lesions were classified as sound (R0), restricted to enamel (R1), reaching the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) and the outer half of the dentin (R2) and the inner half of the dentin (R3). The teeth were subsequently sectioned for histological analysis which served as the gold standard for radiographic examination.

Results

Microscopic examinations showed that the distribution of caries were 63.9% sound, 18.1% enamel, 9.7% DEJ and outer half of the dentin and 8.3% into the inner half of the dentin. The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of enamel caries were 38% and 98%; 15% and 96 %; and 23% and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of both dentin and enamel caries were 55% and 100%; 45% and 100% ; and 55% and 100%, respectively.

Conclusions

The results demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of digital images is similar to that of conventional film radiography in the detection of non-cavitated approximal caries.

Background

Radiography plays an important role in the detection of interproximal caries.

Objectives

The aim of the present study was to determine diagnostic accuracy of chargecoupled devices (CCD), Photo Stimulable Phosphor (PSP) and film radiography in detecting non-cavitated caries.

Patients and Methods

Seventy-two non-cavitated approximal surfaces of extracted human posterior teeth were radiographed under standardized conditions using three intraoral modalities: CCD Dixi3 (Planmeca, Finland), PSP Digora PCT (Soredex, Finland), and E-speed film (Kodak, USA). Radiographs were interpreted by four observers and caries lesions were classified as sound (R0), restricted to enamel (R1), reaching the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) and the outer half of the dentin (R2) and the inner half of the dentin (R3). The teeth were subsequently sectioned for histological analysis which served as the gold standard for radiographic examination.

Results

Microscopic examinations showed that the distribution of caries were 63.9% sound, 18.1% enamel, 9.7% DEJ and outer half of the dentin and 8.3% into the inner half of the dentin. The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of enamel caries were 38% and 98%; 15% and 96 %; and 23% and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of film, CCD and PSP for the detection of both dentin and enamel caries were 55% and 100%; 45% and 100% ; and 55% and 100%, respectively.

Conclusions

The results demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of digital images is similar to that of conventional film radiography in the detection of non-cavitated approximal caries.

Radiography; Dental; Digital; Dental Caries; Diagnosis Radiography; Dental; Digital; Dental Caries; Diagnosis 17 21 http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6747 Farida Abesi Farida Abesi Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98- 1112291408-9,, Mirshekaralireza@ymail.com Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98- 1112291408-9,, Mirshekaralireza@ymail.com Alireza Mirshekar Alireza Mirshekar Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98- 1112291408-9,, Mirshekaralireza@ymail.com; Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98- 1112291408-9,, Mirshekaralireza@ymail.com Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98- 1112291408-9,, Mirshekaralireza@ymail.com; Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98- 1112291408-9,, Mirshekaralireza@ymail.com Ehsan Moudi Ehsan Moudi Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98- 1112291408-9,, Mirshekaralireza@ymail.com Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98- 1112291408-9,, Mirshekaralireza@ymail.com Maryam Seyedmajidi Maryam Seyedmajidi Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98- 1112291408-9,, Mirshekaralireza@ymail.com Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98- 1112291408-9,, Mirshekaralireza@ymail.com Sina Haghanifar Sina Haghanifar Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98- 1112291408-9,, Mirshekaralireza@ymail.com Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran +98- 1112291408-9,, Mirshekaralireza@ymail.com Nima Haghighat Nima Haghighat Student Research Committee of Babol University, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran Student Research Committee of Babol University, Dental Faculty, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran Ali Bijani Ali Bijani Non-Communicable Pediatric Disease Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran Non-Communicable Pediatric Disease Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Iran
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.6759 Detection and Severity Scoring of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Volumetric Analysis of Lung CT Images Detection and Severity Scoring of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Volumetric Analysis of Lung CT Images chest imaging research-article research-article Background

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease.While there is no cure for COPD and the lung damage associated with this disease cannot be reversed, it is still very important to diagnose it as early as possible.

Objectives

In this paper, we propose a novel method based on the measurement of air trapping in the lungs from CT images to detect COPD and to evaluate its severity.

Patients and Methods

Twenty-five patients and twelve normal adults were included in this study. The proposed method found volumetric changes of the lungs from inspiration to expiration. To this end, trachea CT images at full inspiration and expiration were compared and changes in the areas and volumes of the lungs between inspiration and expiration were used to define quantitative measures (features). Using these features, the subjects were classified into two groups of normal and COPD patients using a Bayesian classifier. In addition, t-tests were applied to evaluate discrimination powers of the features for this classification.

Results

For the cases studied, the proposed method estimated air trapping in the lungs from CT images without human intervention. Based on the results, a mathematical model was developed to relate variations of lung volumes to the severity of the disease.

Conclusions

As a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system, the proposed method may assist radiologists in the detection of COPD. It quantifies air trapping in the lungs and thus may assist them with the scoring of the disease by quantifying the severity of the disease.

Background

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a devastating disease.While there is no cure for COPD and the lung damage associated with this disease cannot be reversed, it is still very important to diagnose it as early as possible.

Objectives

In this paper, we propose a novel method based on the measurement of air trapping in the lungs from CT images to detect COPD and to evaluate its severity.

Patients and Methods

Twenty-five patients and twelve normal adults were included in this study. The proposed method found volumetric changes of the lungs from inspiration to expiration. To this end, trachea CT images at full inspiration and expiration were compared and changes in the areas and volumes of the lungs between inspiration and expiration were used to define quantitative measures (features). Using these features, the subjects were classified into two groups of normal and COPD patients using a Bayesian classifier. In addition, t-tests were applied to evaluate discrimination powers of the features for this classification.

Results

For the cases studied, the proposed method estimated air trapping in the lungs from CT images without human intervention. Based on the results, a mathematical model was developed to relate variations of lung volumes to the severity of the disease.

Conclusions

As a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system, the proposed method may assist radiologists in the detection of COPD. It quantifies air trapping in the lungs and thus may assist them with the scoring of the disease by quantifying the severity of the disease.

Pulmonary Disease;Chronic Obstructive;Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted;Tomography, X-Ray Computed;Lung Pulmonary Disease;Chronic Obstructive;Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted;Tomography, X-Ray Computed;Lung 22 7 http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6759 Mohammad Parsa Hosseini Mohammad Parsa Hosseini Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran +98-9122981895, mp.hosseini@ymail.com; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran +98-9122981895, mp.hosseini@ymail.com Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran +98-9122981895, mp.hosseini@ymail.com; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran +98-9122981895, mp.hosseini@ymail.com Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh Image Analysis Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, USA; Control and Intelligent Processing Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, iran Image Analysis Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, USA; Control and Intelligent Processing Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, iran Shahram Akhlaghpoor Shahram Akhlaghpoor Department of Radiology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran Department of Radiology, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.6343 The Role of Multidetector CT in the Diagnosis of Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: Report of a Case The Role of Multidetector CT in the Diagnosis of Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: Report of a Case case-report case-report

Herein, we report a 40-year old man who presented with flank and abdominal pain with dilatation of the bilateral pyelocalyceal system detected in ultrasonography. Computed Tomography (CT) scan showed a soft tissue mass at the level of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae in the retroperitoneal region. There were no blood flow signals in 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT) which confirms the Retroperitoneal Fibrosis (RPF). Pathological examination showed infiltration of plasma cells, macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils accompanied by fibrosis, which is consistent with idiopathic RPF. In conclusion, 64-slice MDCT imaging is useful in the diagnosis of RPF.

Herein, we report a 40-year old man who presented with flank and abdominal pain with dilatation of the bilateral pyelocalyceal system detected in ultrasonography. Computed Tomography (CT) scan showed a soft tissue mass at the level of the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae in the retroperitoneal region. There were no blood flow signals in 64-slice multidetector CT (MDCT) which confirms the Retroperitoneal Fibrosis (RPF). Pathological examination showed infiltration of plasma cells, macrophages, lymphocytes and eosinophils accompanied by fibrosis, which is consistent with idiopathic RPF. In conclusion, 64-slice MDCT imaging is useful in the diagnosis of RPF.

Multidetector Computed Tomography; Retroperitoneal Fibrosis; Diagnosis; Abdominal Pain Multidetector Computed Tomography; Retroperitoneal Fibrosis; Diagnosis; Abdominal Pain 28 31 http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6343 Hossein Ghanaati Hossein Ghanaati Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran +98-2166581516, ghanaati@yahoo.com; Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran +98-2166581516, ghanaati@yahoo.com Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran +98-2166581516, ghanaati@yahoo.com; Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran +98-2166581516, ghanaati@yahoo.com Amir Hossein Jalali Amir Hossein Jalali Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center (BASIR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center (BASIR), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran Mehdi Mohammadifar Mehdi Mohammadifar Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran +98-2166581516, ghanaati@yahoo.com Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran +98-2166581516, ghanaati@yahoo.com Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Department of Radiology, Shahid Radjaee Cardiovascular Medical Center, Iran Department of Radiology, Shahid Radjaee Cardiovascular Medical Center, Iran Kavous Firouznia Kavous Firouznia Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran +98-2166581516, ghanaati@yahoo.com Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran +98-2166581516, ghanaati@yahoo.com Marzieh Motevalli Marzieh Motevalli Department of Radiology, Shahid Radjaee Cardiovascular Medical Center, Iran Department of Radiology, Shahid Radjaee Cardiovascular Medical Center, Iran Amir Hossein Jalali Amir Hossein Jalali Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran +98-2166581516, ghanaati@yahoo.com Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center, Advanced Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Research Center (ADIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran +98-2166581516, ghanaati@yahoo.com
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.6545 Desmoid Tumor Associated With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Evaluation With 64-Detector CT Enterography Desmoid Tumor Associated With Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Evaluation With 64-Detector CT Enterography case-report case-report Abstract

Desmoid tumors (DTs) are benign tumors which are not seen very often, and most of the radiologists and clinicians do not know the characteristics of them very well. Correct and early diagnosis of DTs is important for decreasing mortality and morbidity. Computed tomography enterography (CTE) is a new modality for small bowel imaging which combines the improved spatial and temporal resolution of multidetector computed tomography (CT) with large volumes of ingested enteric contrast material to permit evaluation of the small bowel wall and lumen and also the entire abdomen. We report a familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patient with localized mesentery and abdominal wall DTs. We showed the exact location of the DTs and their relation with the small bowel by CTE. In conclusion, CTE is a useful technique for DT localization, the degree of extension and invasion to local structures, presence of partial and complete small bowel obstruction, and the relationship of the tumors with vasculature and whether ischemia ha s occurred as a result or not.

Abstract

Desmoid tumors (DTs) are benign tumors which are not seen very often, and most of the radiologists and clinicians do not know the characteristics of them very well. Correct and early diagnosis of DTs is important for decreasing mortality and morbidity. Computed tomography enterography (CTE) is a new modality for small bowel imaging which combines the improved spatial and temporal resolution of multidetector computed tomography (CT) with large volumes of ingested enteric contrast material to permit evaluation of the small bowel wall and lumen and also the entire abdomen. We report a familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patient with localized mesentery and abdominal wall DTs. We showed the exact location of the DTs and their relation with the small bowel by CTE. In conclusion, CTE is a useful technique for DT localization, the degree of extension and invasion to local structures, presence of partial and complete small bowel obstruction, and the relationship of the tumors with vasculature and whether ischemia ha s occurred as a result or not.

Fibromatosis, Aggressive;Desmoid Tumor;Familial Adenomatous Polyposis;CT Enterography;Mesentery;Fibroma Fibromatosis, Aggressive;Desmoid Tumor;Familial Adenomatous Polyposis;CT Enterography;Mesentery;Fibroma 32 6 http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6545 Oktay Algin Oktay Algin Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey , Turkey +90-3122912525, droktayalgin@gmail.com; Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey , Turkey +90-3122912525, droktayalgin@gmail.com Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey , Turkey +90-3122912525, droktayalgin@gmail.com; Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey , Turkey +90-3122912525, droktayalgin@gmail.com Sehnaz Evrimler Sehnaz Evrimler Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey , Turkey +90-3122912525, droktayalgin@gmail.com Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey , Turkey +90-3122912525, droktayalgin@gmail.com Evrim Ozmen Evrim Ozmen Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey , Turkey +90-3122912525, droktayalgin@gmail.com Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey , Turkey +90-3122912525, droktayalgin@gmail.com Melike Metin Melike Metin Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey , Turkey +90-3122912525, droktayalgin@gmail.com Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey , Turkey +90-3122912525, droktayalgin@gmail.com Osman Ersoy Osman Ersoy Department of Gastroenterology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Turkey Department of Gastroenterology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Turkey Mustafa Karaoglanoglu Mustafa Karaoglanoglu Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey , Turkey +90-3122912525, droktayalgin@gmail.com Department of Radiology, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey , Turkey +90-3122912525, droktayalgin@gmail.com
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.6572 Necrotizing Sarcoid Granulomatosis Mimicking Lung Malignancy: MDCT, PET-CT and Pathologic Findings Necrotizing Sarcoid Granulomatosis Mimicking Lung Malignancy: MDCT, PET-CT and Pathologic Findings case-report case-report Abstract

Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis (NSG) is a rare disease which is classified in the spectrum of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. It is a variant of sarcoidosis and differs from it histologically. Diagnosis is based on the pathological features, but radiology may help in the differential diagnosis. It is characterized by alveolar infiltrates or parenchymal nodules in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). We report a case of a 50-year-old man with the diagnosis of NSG mimicking lung malignancy. Radiological and pathological findings and also the destructive course of the disease will be discussed.

Abstract

Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis (NSG) is a rare disease which is classified in the spectrum of pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. It is a variant of sarcoidosis and differs from it histologically. Diagnosis is based on the pathological features, but radiology may help in the differential diagnosis. It is characterized by alveolar infiltrates or parenchymal nodules in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). We report a case of a 50-year-old man with the diagnosis of NSG mimicking lung malignancy. Radiological and pathological findings and also the destructive course of the disease will be discussed.

Lung Neoplasms; Positron-Emission Tomography; Tomography, X-Ray Computed Lung Neoplasms; Positron-Emission Tomography; Tomography, X-Ray Computed 37 41 http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6572 Hilal Sahin Hilal Sahin Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, 35100, Turkey +90-2323902202, hilalcimen@gmail.com; Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, 35100, Turkey +90-2323902202, hilalcimen@gmail.com Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, 35100, Turkey +90-2323902202, hilalcimen@gmail.com; Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, 35100, Turkey +90-2323902202, hilalcimen@gmail.com Naim Ceylan Naim Ceylan Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, 35100, Turkey +90-2323902202, hilalcimen@gmail.com Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, 35100, Turkey +90-2323902202, hilalcimen@gmail.com Selen Bayraktaroglu Selen Bayraktaroglu Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, 35100, Turkey +90-2323902202, hilalcimen@gmail.com Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, 35100, Turkey +90-2323902202, hilalcimen@gmail.com Sezai Tasbakan Sezai Tasbakan Department of Pulmonology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Turkey Department of Pulmonology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Turkey Ali Veral Ali Veral Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Turkey Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Turkey Recep Savas Recep Savas Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, 35100, Turkey +90-2323902202, hilalcimen@gmail.com Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, 35100, Turkey +90-2323902202, hilalcimen@gmail.com
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.6737 Hypothalamic Cavernous Angioma Associated With Memory and Behavior Disturbance Attacks: Role of Imaging in Diagnosis Hypothalamic Cavernous Angioma Associated With Memory and Behavior Disturbance Attacks: Role of Imaging in Diagnosis case-report case-report Abstract

Deep seated cavernous angioma (CA) is a very rare entity, those occurring in the hypothalamus are still less common. We present a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with behavior and memory disturbance attacks. He had a CA of the hypothalamus as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We will discuss the role and importance of imaging in such scenario and also the differential diagnoses of this rare entity.

Abstract

Deep seated cavernous angioma (CA) is a very rare entity, those occurring in the hypothalamus are still less common. We present a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with behavior and memory disturbance attacks. He had a CA of the hypothalamus as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We will discuss the role and importance of imaging in such scenario and also the differential diagnoses of this rare entity.

Neurofibroma; S100 Proteins; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Neurofibroma; S100 Proteins; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cone-Beam Computed Tomography http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6737 Preetam Bhujagonda Patil Preetam Bhujagonda Patil Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, S.D.M College of Medical Sciences and Hospital,dliswwed-580009, Karnataka State, India +91-8362447798, mgkamalapur@gmail.com Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, S.D.M College of Medical Sciences and Hospital,dliswwed-580009, Karnataka State, India +91-8362447798, mgkamalapur@gmail.com Muralidhar Gururajrao Kamalapur Muralidhar Gururajrao Kamalapur Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, S.D.M College of Medical Sciences and Hospital,dliswwed-580009, Karnataka State, India +91-8362447798, mgkamalapur@gmail.com; Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, S.D.M College of Medical Sciences and Hospital,dliswwed-580009, Karnataka State, India +91-8362447798, mgkamalapur@gmail.com Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, S.D.M College of Medical Sciences and Hospital,dliswwed-580009, Karnataka State, India +91-8362447798, mgkamalapur@gmail.com; Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, S.D.M College of Medical Sciences and Hospital,dliswwed-580009, Karnataka State, India +91-8362447798, mgkamalapur@gmail.com Jayaraj Chandrashekhar Sindhur Jayaraj Chandrashekhar Sindhur Department of Medicine, S.D.M College of Medical Sciences and Hospital Dharwad, India Department of Medicine, S.D.M College of Medical Sciences and Hospital Dharwad, India Shyamsundar Krishnabhat Joshi Shyamsundar Krishnabhat Joshi Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, S.D.M College of Medical Sciences and Hospital,dliswwed-580009, Karnataka State, India +91-8362447798, mgkamalapur@gmail.com Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, S.D.M College of Medical Sciences and Hospital,dliswwed-580009, Karnataka State, India +91-8362447798, mgkamalapur@gmail.com
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.6684 Intraosseous Neurofibroma and Concurrent Involvement of the Mandible, Maxilla and Orbit: Report of a Case Intraosseous Neurofibroma and Concurrent Involvement of the Mandible, Maxilla and Orbit: Report of a Case case-report case-report

Neurofibroma is an autosomal dominant disorder which has major criteria such as hyperpigmentation (cafe-au lait spots), cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors and bone deformities. In this report, a case of multifocal intraosseous neurofibroma in a 16-year-old male with right facial asymmetry, multiple unerupted maxillary posterior teeth and a previous history of infratemporal and orbital neurofibroma is presented. The majority of reported cases occurred in the posterior portion of the mandible and a limited number in the maxilla. Cone beam CT (CBCT) was performed for better evaluation of the extension and form of the maxillary and mandibular lesions. This report presents a rare situation of simultaneous peripheral neurofibromatosis (NF) and multifocal intraosseous NF in the mandible, maxilla and orbits and also focuses on advanced imaging findings of bony and soft tissue neurofibroma.

Neurofibroma is an autosomal dominant disorder which has major criteria such as hyperpigmentation (cafe-au lait spots), cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors and bone deformities. In this report, a case of multifocal intraosseous neurofibroma in a 16-year-old male with right facial asymmetry, multiple unerupted maxillary posterior teeth and a previous history of infratemporal and orbital neurofibroma is presented. The majority of reported cases occurred in the posterior portion of the mandible and a limited number in the maxilla. Cone beam CT (CBCT) was performed for better evaluation of the extension and form of the maxillary and mandibular lesions. This report presents a rare situation of simultaneous peripheral neurofibromatosis (NF) and multifocal intraosseous NF in the mandible, maxilla and orbits and also focuses on advanced imaging findings of bony and soft tissue neurofibroma.

Neurofibroma S100 Proteins Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Neurofibroma S100 Proteins Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cone-Beam Computed Tomography 45 9 http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6684 Zahra Dalili Zahra Dalili Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, O}imatnivesky:ov1}}wm{u5wciences, Iran +98-1313230775, Dalili@gums.ac.ir; Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, O}imatnivesky:ov1}}wm{u5wciences, Iran +98-1313230775, Dalili@gums.ac.ir Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, O}imatnivesky:ov1}}wm{u5wciences, Iran +98-1313230775, Dalili@gums.ac.ir; Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, O}imatnivesky:ov1}}wm{u5wciences, Iran +98-1313230775, Dalili@gums.ac.ir Gholamhossein Adham Gholamhossein Adham Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental School, Guilan University Of Medical Sciences, Iran Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Dental School, Guilan University Of Medical Sciences, Iran
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.6765 Bony Lesions in Pediatric Acute Leukemia: Pictorial Essay Bony Lesions in Pediatric Acute Leukemia: Pictorial Essay musculoskeletal imaging case-report case-report

Acute leukemia is the most common malignancy in childhood, which mainly involves children less than 15 years of age. The growing skeleton is the main site of involvement in children. Leukemic cells proliferate within the massive red bone marrow in children. So besides the pallor, petechia, purpura and ecchymosis in the skin and mucosal surfaces, bone pain and other bony lesions are other manifestations of leukemia. On the other hand, bony lesions are more prevalent in children than adults with no poor prognosis in comparison to patients without bone lesions. These bony lesions may precede other laboratory tests so familiarity with these presentations is very important for earlier diagnosis. In this pictorial essay, we tried to gather the most common bony lesions that may be seen in acute leukemia in different cases admitted to our hospital with general malaise and localized tenderness and discomfort leading us to perform plain X-ray for further evaluation. Finding these bony lesions helps clinicians to reach the diagnosis quickly. These findings include metaphyseal lucent band and erosion, periosteal reaction, small lucent bone lesion and permeative appearance, reduced bone density and collapsed vertebra.

Acute leukemia is the most common malignancy in childhood, which mainly involves children less than 15 years of age. The growing skeleton is the main site of involvement in children. Leukemic cells proliferate within the massive red bone marrow in children. So besides the pallor, petechia, purpura and ecchymosis in the skin and mucosal surfaces, bone pain and other bony lesions are other manifestations of leukemia. On the other hand, bony lesions are more prevalent in children than adults with no poor prognosis in comparison to patients without bone lesions. These bony lesions may precede other laboratory tests so familiarity with these presentations is very important for earlier diagnosis. In this pictorial essay, we tried to gather the most common bony lesions that may be seen in acute leukemia in different cases admitted to our hospital with general malaise and localized tenderness and discomfort leading us to perform plain X-ray for further evaluation. Finding these bony lesions helps clinicians to reach the diagnosis quickly. These findings include metaphyseal lucent band and erosion, periosteal reaction, small lucent bone lesion and permeative appearance, reduced bone density and collapsed vertebra.

Radiography; Leukemia; Child Radiography; Leukemia; Child 50 56 http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6765 Makhtoom Shahnazi Makhtoom Shahnazi Department of Radiology, Loghman-e Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,, Iran +98-2155411411, m_shahnazi@sbmu.ac.ir; Department of Radiology, Loghman-e Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,, Iran +98-2155411411, m_shahnazi@sbmu.ac.ir Department of Radiology, Loghman-e Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,, Iran +98-2155411411, m_shahnazi@sbmu.ac.ir; Department of Radiology, Loghman-e Hakim Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,, Iran +98-2155411411, m_shahnazi@sbmu.ac.ir Alireza Khatami Alireza Khatami Department of Radiology, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran Department of Radiology, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran Bibishahin Shamsian Bibishahin Shamsian Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran Bibimaryam Haerizadeh Bibimaryam Haerizadeh Department of Radiology, Shahid Beheshti University Affiliated Hospitals, Iran Department of Radiology, Shahid Beheshti University Affiliated Hospitals, Iran Mastooreh Mehrafarin Mastooreh Mehrafarin Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran Mofid Children's Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.6344 A Case Report of Chondrosarcoma That Primarily Developed in the Cervical Spine A Case Report of Chondrosarcoma That Primarily Developed in the Cervical Spine letter to editor letter letter 57 59 http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6344 Ali Hekmatnia Ali Hekmatnia Department of Radiology, Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Iran Department of Radiology, Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Iran Amirhossein Ghazavi Amirhossein Ghazavi Department of Radiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Mohtasham Kashani St., Alley No: 27, No: 84, Iran +98-9133089543, amirhosseinghazavi@yahoo.com; Department of Radiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Mohtasham Kashani St., Alley No: 27, No: 84, Iran +98-9133089543, amirhosseinghazavi@yahoo.com Department of Radiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Mohtasham Kashani St., Alley No: 27, No: 84, Iran +98-9133089543, amirhosseinghazavi@yahoo.com; Department of Radiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Mohtasham Kashani St., Alley No: 27, No: 84, Iran +98-9133089543, amirhosseinghazavi@yahoo.com Bahram Aminmansour Bahram Aminmansour Department of Neurosurgery, Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Department of Neurosurgery, Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Parvin Mahzouni Parvin Mahzouni Department of Pathology, Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran Department of Pathology, Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran
en 10.5812/iranjradiol.6357 Evaluation of Radiographic Pattern of Male Urethral Strictures in Nigeria: A Preliminary Report of a Proposed New Scoring System for Developing Countries Evaluation of Radiographic Pattern of Male Urethral Strictures in Nigeria: A Preliminary Report of a Proposed New Scoring System for Developing Countries letter letter Urethral Stricture;Male;Nigeria;Developing Countries Urethral Stricture;Male;Nigeria;Developing Countries 60 62 http://www.Iranjradiol.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=6357 Ahmed Ahidjo Ahmed Ahidjo Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria +23- 47065756164, ahmedahidjo@hotmail.com; Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria +23- 47065756164, ahmedahidjo@hotmail.com Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria +23- 47065756164, ahmedahidjo@hotmail.com; Department of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria +23- 47065756164, ahmedahidjo@hotmail.com Adekunle Yishau Abdulkadir Adekunle Yishau Abdulkadir Department of Radiology, Federal Medical Center Gusau, Nigeria Department of Radiology, Federal Medical Center Gusau, Nigeria Adekunle Yishau Abdulkadir Adekunle Yishau Abdulkadir Department of Radiology, Federal Medical Center Gusau, Nigeria Department of Radiology, Federal Medical Center Gusau, Nigeria Ibrahim Ahmed Gadams Ibrahim Ahmed Gadams Department of Surgery, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria Department of Surgery, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria Ibrahim Ahmed Gadams Ibrahim Ahmed Gadams Department of Surgery, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria Department of Surgery, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria Suleiman Tanimu Saad Suleiman Tanimu Saad Department of Radiology, Federal Medical Center Gombe, Nigeria Department of Radiology, Federal Medical Center Gombe, Nigeria Suleiman Tanimu Saad Suleiman Tanimu Saad Department of Radiology, Federal Medical Center Gombe, Nigeria Department of Radiology, Federal Medical Center Gombe, Nigeria